We call it pages, domains, servers, websites, internets and we hope the other party will understand. Maybe, maybe not, but that can always be cleared with the additional “wait, a server, don't you mean a website?” You can't just ask those questions when reading various specifications and technical documents, so they try to call things by their correct names and in a consistent manner. And they do it so well that terms like origin, site, same origin, same site, eTLD and public suffix are normally not even translated to other languages, because then nobody would understand it. And how does the attractiveness of subdomains relate to this?
The Chrome browser (and others like Edge) allows you to override both HTTP response headers and the response content. I've previously written about overriding the headers for testing purposes, let's see how you can override the body, or the content itself, as well. Starting with Chrome 117 (released in September 2023) it's also greatly simplified.
Since 2020, maximum lifetime of HTTPS certificates is limited to 1 year, exactly 398 days. I've previously written about the history and the reasons behind the change. But the reduced lifetime applies only to certificates issued from a public certification authority (CA) added to the operating system's or the browser's trusted root store by the vendor.
Starting with Chrome 113 (and in other browsers like Edge), you can override HTTP response headers, or add a new one. This is handy as you can override e.g. some security headers for testing. The HTTP response header override will be applied before things like CSP are processed so you can modify the Content Security Policy for the page for example.
When a security vulnerability is discovered in one of the PHP libraries you use, there are several options how you can learn about the bug before it's too late. I've written about PHP Security Advisories Database in one of my previous posts and how you can use it with Roave Security Advisories and a few other ways. However all of them require an extra package or a tool.
Some time ago, I've change my Google password. That change logged me out of my Google account on my iPad so Photos, Chrome, and other apps were asking again for my password to log me back in. The only problem was that all I could see, was a blank page instead of the Google login form, or just
-- (NSURLErrorDomain: -999) error.
At the end of August, a critical security bug was discovered and immediately fixed in one of the popular PHP frameworks, Nette. Although the author of the framework, David Grudl, did everything possible, some did not learn about the bug in time and did not update their sites and web apps. Let me tell you a few tips not only for PHP, that will help you to know about similar problems as soon as possible.
I'm organizing another round of my training, this time remotely. Afternoons, for half of the regular price.
In February 2020 at the CA/Browser Forum in Bratislava, Slovakia (and later officially), Apple has announced that starting September 1st, 2020, maximum TLS certificate lifetime in Safari (and probably in the whole macOS and iOS and all apps) will be just 1 year, 398 days exactly. Apple's change has been followed by both Chrome and Mozilla later that year. That's very good news. But why?
NordVPN, a VPN service provider, got hacked some time in 2018. In their official response, they say that only one server was affected due to an insecure remote management system left on the machine by the datacenter provider. Private keys got leaked (bad), some other VPN providers were also breached (bad) but that's not what I want to write about (good) because there are better places to read about it.
Top 10 coffee brands based on how much their names are used as passwords. Look, not every password research has to be meaningful.
Yesterday, Google announced yet another Security Key to be used for two-factor authentication (2FA, sometimes 2-step verification, 2SV) for Google's services. This one is built directly into Android 7+ so you may already have it in your pocket. It uses Bluetooth (but pairing isn't required) and currently works only in Chrome and Chromium-based browsers – Google says it's a beta version. And that's basically all we know about it. I use 2FA where possible, I recommend using it whenever possible so I just had to try it.
Yesterday I checked Czech websites in “Collection #1” and others (like “Collection #2” to “Collection #5”, “BigDB”), today I've checked Slovak sites. We're neighboring countries and historically have a lot in common, many Czech users have accounts on Slovak sites as well, so it seemed like a good idea.
Last week was all about the 773 million records data breach, nicknamed “Collection #1”. It's a few years old compilation of previous data leaks but it's still interesting to check which Czech websites (and Slovak, too) are present in this and other databases (like “Collection #2” to “Collection #5”, “BigDB”).
Roughly two weeks ago, Facebook started adding a tracking parameter,
fbclid (Facebook click id?), to all external links users share. And I didn't like it so I'm hiding it.
Microsoft, Google, Apple & Mozilla announced yesterday that they're removing TLS 1.0 and TLS 1.1 protocols from Internet Explorer, Edge, Chrome, Safari & Firefox browsers in the
beginning middle of 2020. Your visitors most probably don't use them already so you can disable them in your server configs today. But let's verify that first using the “Handshake Simulation” tool available in the SSL Labs Server Test.
Magical properties are often attributed to the padlock icon 🔒 which marks “secure” pages. For example, you'll often hear that the icon indicates trustworthy websites that won't abuse your data and passwords. The padlock is gradually being removed and that's a Good Thing™. But why?
Just a few weeks ago, a new regional transportation system called Lítačka (a slang word for prepaid municipal transportation ticket used in some parts of the Czech Republic) was put into operation in Prague and the Central Bohemian Region. The system allows passengers to buy tickets in a mobile application, passengers can also pair their tickets with their payment cards so the validity of the prepaid ticket can later be checked by waving the card near random card readers in transportation vehicles. You could also steal a password reset link right from the unsuspecting user's browser.
Chrome started marking all HTTP websites as Not secure yesterday (on my birthday, what a gift!) with their release of Chrome 68. The treatment is not a red warning yet, just a gray
(i). And there's a lot of busy czech websites getting that treatment. And how did we get here anyway and what's next?
I joined Report URI, the real-time security reporting tool, a year ago. In fact, my first code change was June 27, 2017. Since then I've added 709,402 more lines. And deleted 1,981,599 lines.
security.txt and why you should have one
security.txt to your site, with correct contact details inside the file, so that people reporting security issues won't have to guess where to send the reports to. Using a real example, I'll show you why having such file is a good idea.
“The developer was using the same email and password combination on GitHub.” What can go wrong? Hell of a lot can go wrong.
You don't crack passwords using rainbow tables or brute-force attacks anymore. So this probably wasn't a plaintext leak, somebody have cracked 750k passwords and uploaded them online. I've tried cracking them too.
I've reported Stored XSS vulnerability and it was triaged, fixed, tested and deployed in less than an hour. On Friday. Before Christmas.
Still using MD5 or SHA-1 to store user passwords and want to gracefully migrate to e.g. bcrypt? Want to do it properly to protect all passwords in the database? Here's how.
ERR_SPDY_PROTOCOL_ERROR, and an invalid HTTP header
When migrating your site to a more performant HTTP/2 protocol, it may happen that Chrome will not load a page and will display This site can’t be reached with
ERR_SPDY_PROTOCOL_ERROR instead. HTTP/2 is derived from the earlier SPDY protocol, that's probably why the error message doesn't mention HTTP/2 at all. I'll show you how to figure it out with
I could hijack 629 LinkedIn accounts by re-registering purged inactive (or mistyped) email addresses at the largest free email provider in the Czech Republic, Seznam.cz. But I haven't, of course.
Behind the curtain, the VPN in the Opera browser is just a proxy. Here's how it works.
Pokusím se shrnout, co o problému víme, a zabrousím i trochu do technických detailů fungování LastPassu, a tím se pokusím aspoň trochu vyvrátit některé fámy a mýty. Na závěr uvedu pár dobrých rad, jak LastPass více zabezpečit.
A víte, že Seznam má i vlastní mobilní prohlížeče, jak pro Android, tak pro iOS? Přestaňte jásat a zadržte. Než si je do svých chytrých telefonů a jiných pádel nainstalujete, přečtěte si, co jsem o jednom z nich zjistil. Pojďme se tedy podívat, co je na webovém prohlížeči také důležitého a co může nepříjemně ovlivnit vaše soukromí. V závěru se lehce podíváme i na mobilní aplikaci Email.cz.
No, víte, ono to zas taková sranda není, takže o co bude dnešní článek méně zábavný, o to bude stejně (málo) technický. Tak nějak lidsky v něm popíšu pár nejčastějších problémů zabezpečení webů, abyste si pod těmi nulami v hodnocení dokázali představit, jak malé nebo velké problémy se na webech dají nalézt. Skočte si zalít to instantní kafe a pojďme na to.